The King Cobra (Ophiophagus Hannah) has an important place in many cultures and is a medically important venomous snake in the world. The envenomation of this snake is highly lethal and is mainly manifested by neurotoxicity and local tissue damage. The King Cobra may be part of a larger species complex and is widely distributed in Southeast Asia, southern China, the northern and eastern regions, as well as in the Western Ghats of India, indicating possible geographical diversity. in the composition of the poison. However, there is only one particular species King Cobra antivenom available worldwide that is made in Thailand, using venom from a snake of Thai origin. Issues associated with the management of King Cobra envenomation (e.g., variations in toxin composition and toxicity, limited availability and efficacy of antivenom) and challenges faced by venom research (particularly proteomics), are rarely addressed. This article examines the natural history and sociocultural importance of King Cobra, cases of snakebite envenomation caused by this species, current management practices (preclinical and clinical), and major toxicological studies of venom with focus on proteomics, toxicity and venom neutralization. Unfortunately, epidemiological data on King Cobra bites are sparse, and venom proteomes reported in various studies have revealed marked differences in detail. It discusses challenges such as inconsistency in snake venom sampling, variable proteomic analysis methodology, lack of mechanistic and antivenom studies, and controversy surrounding the use of antivenom in the treatment of King Cobra envenomation. Future directions have been proposed, including efforts to establish a standard and comprehensive pan-Asian proteomics database of King Cobra venom, in which venom variation can be determined. Research should be conducted to identify the antigenicity of the toxin and develop an antidote with enhanced efficacy and broader geographic utility. The efforts are in line with the WHO roadmap which aims to reduce the burden of snake bites by 50% by 2030.
King cobra venom used for Medicine
King cobra venom used in medicine A fisherman sits in the calm and dark waters of the Ganges River pulling his net. As he rides it into his rickety boat, he begins to investigate his prey. Some jumping fish, some loose trash, a bunch of plants ... and some weird brown rope. He bent down to pick up the rope, thinking it could be used. When his outstretched hand reached for the rope, it began to move. He immediately realized what it was and tried to withdraw the arm. But he could not move fast. The "rope" rose, his head turned to her, his hood flashing behind her. Before he could escape, he attacked. White-hot pain enveloped his arm as his long dagger fang sank into his flesh. He let out a choking cry as the creature retreated. He dropped the net and fell back to the bare floor of the small boat. He knew what had happened to him and he only had a few minutes to live. When the king cobra attacks, you have no time. One patient was lying in a hospital bed naked, writhing in pain. It was as if his body had been burned. He felt, one by one cutting his veins. Morphine did nothing. A nurse entered the room holding a small cup. He approached the trembling patient and offered him the cup. In it are many pearl pills, which glow with hope. After painfully taking them, a certain look of happiness enveloped his face. His movements stopped. The patient smiled when he realized what had happened. He was healed, in a way. This new pain reliever worked on him, finally. Where morphine did little, the gentle venom of the king cobra did the trick.
Anti-venom Drug list
Antivenom, also known as antivenom, antivenom antiserum, and antivenom immunoglobulin, is a specific treatment for poisoning. It is made of antibodies and is used to treat some venomous bites and bites. Antivenoms are only recommended if there is significant toxicity or high risk of toxicity. The specific antidote needed depends on the species involved, it is given by injection. Side effects can be severe. These include serum sickness, shortness of breath, and allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis. Antivenom is traditionally done by collecting venom from the animal in question and injecting it in small amounts into a pet. The antibodies that are formed are extracted from the pet's blood and purified. Versions are available for spider bites, snake bites, fish bites, and scorpion bites. Due to the high production cost of antibody-based antivenoms and their short shelf life when not refrigerated, alternative methods of antivenom production are actively explored. One of the different production methods involves production from bacteria. [Another approach is to develop targeted drugs (which, unlike antibodies, are usually synthetic and easier to make in size). Antivenom was first developed in the late 19th century and became common use in the 1950s. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.
Snake venom Medicine History
It was made in pharmacies in Europe until the 18th century. But the real use of snake venom began in the late 19th century when French scientist Albert Calmette discovered that if the venom was injected into animals in small doses, their blood serum would become a strong defense. Venom Studies: Current Benefits and Future Developments: Toxic organisms are represented in many taxa, including the kingdom of Animalia. During evolution, animals developed special organs for producing and injecting toxins. Animal poisons are complex mixtures, the compositions of which depend on the species producing the poison. The best known and most studied venomous animals on earth are snakes, scorpions and spiders. Sea animals include jellyfish, anemones and cone snails. Toxic substances in the venom of these animals are mainly from protein and peptide origin. Recent studies have indicated that a single toxin can contain up to several hundred different substances that produce different physiological effects. Bites or bites of some venomous species result in severe poisoning that in some cases leads to death. This increases the problem of treating the bite. The most effective treatment so far is the use of antivenoms. To improve the effectiveness of such treatments, knowledge of the composition of the poison is required. On the other hand, poisons contain substances with unique biological properties, which can be used in both basic science and clinical applications. The best example of the use of toxins in basic science is α-bungarotoxin, whose discovery has had a major impact on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor studies. Now the toxic compositions of many species have been examined. Based on these data, it can be concluded that poisons contain a large number of individual components belonging to a limited number of structural types. Often small changes in the amino acid sequence bring about new biological properties. Changes in the living conditions of venomous animals lead to changes in the composition of toxins resulting in the emergence of new toxins. At the same time, the introduction of new proteomics and genomics techniques is leading to the discovery of new compounds, which can serve as research tools or as models for the development of new drugs. The use of these sensitive and comprehensive methods allows the study of toxins available in small quantities or portions that are not abundant in known toxins.
Snake venom Drug addiction
Snake venom addiction is a practice that has previously been reported in various parts of the world, and most events involve patients with psychiatric illnesses of the various types of psychoactive substances around the world, snake venom is the most dangerous substance. Substance addiction is a brain dysfunction that is chronic and is characterized by a persistent desire to continue consuming the substance despite its harmful consequences. It involves patterns associated with substance abuse, which are often socially unacceptable. Sometimes it is not the free will of the addict that decides the substance in which the individual becomes an addict. Various cultural and social aspects influence the substance involved in addiction. Snake venom addiction is a practice that has previously been reported in various parts of the world, and most events involve patients with psychiatric illnesses. Of the various types of psychoactive substances around the world, snake venom is the most dangerous substance. Animals whose components, excreted products, or secretions can be used as psychoactive agents are known as psychoactive fauna. Psychonaut is the term used to define an individual who attempts to use animal parts or products for psychoactive benefits. The use of psychoactive fauna involves the superstitions and spiritual beliefs of various groups around the world.
How to make Medicine from Snake Venom
Snake Venoms in Drug Detection: Essential Therapeutic Tools for Saving Lives Animal poisons are used as defense mechanisms or to immobilize and digest the victim. In fact, poisons are complex mixtures of enzymatic and non-enzymatic substances with specific pathophysiological functions. Peptide toxins isolated from animal toxins primarily target ion channels, membrane receptors, and components of the hemostatic system with high selectivity and affinity. This review presents an updated pharmacology study of the bioactive components of snake venom and examines its therapeutic perspectives against a wide range of pathophysiological conditions. Snake venoms have also been used as medical tools for thousands of years, especially in traditional Chinese medicine. Consequently, snake venom can be viewed as minidrug libraries where each drug is pharmacologically active. However, less than 0.01% of these toxins have been identified and characterized. For example, Captopril® (Enalapril), (Eptifibatide), and Aggrastat® (Tirofiban) are FDA -approved snake venom-based drugs. In addition to these approved drugs, many other components of snake venom are now involved in preclinical or clinical trials for a variety of therapeutic applications. These examples show that snake venom can be an important source of new components of lead in drug discovery.
Snake venom Vaccine
It's rattlesnake time! There are thirty -eight species of snakes found in South Carolina and five of them: the coral snake, the eastern diamondback rattlesnake, the timber (or canebrake) rattlesnake, the pygmy rattlesnake, copperhead, and cottonmouth are venomous. The rattlesnake vaccine is specifically designed to produce antibodies against western rattlesnake venom. The vaccine can also be effective against other snakes with similar venom, such as rattlesnakes, rattlesnakes, and copperheads. The vaccine does not protect against venom from water moccasins or coral snakes. The vaccine works by creating protective antibodies that help neutralize the venom, so dogs experience less pain and inflammation after a snake bite. Dogs that are bitten may also require less antivenin, which can be quite expensive and can lead to side effects. Factors that may influence the effectiveness of the vaccine include the location of the bite, the type of snake, and the amount of venom injected. THE PROBLEM OF THE RATTLESNAKE SNAKE BITE: Venomous snakes bite approximately 150,000 dogs and cats each year. Dogs and cats are 20 times more likely to be bitten by a venomous snake than humans and 25 times more likely to die when bitten. A dog or cat is approximately 300 times more likely to be bitten by a venomous snake than to have rabies. Snake bites are life-threatening, extremely painful, expensive to treat, and can cause permanent damage even if the dogs survive. FOLLOWING PROTOCOL: Initially, a dog should receive two subcutaneous doses every 30 days. Dogs over 100 pounds or less than 25 pounds can benefit from an initial series of three doses. It is best to give booster shots about 30 days before rattlesnake exposure begins. Protection increases approximately 30 to 45 days after boosters and lasts about six months. VACCINE SAFETY: The rattlesnake vaccine has been on the market since 2003 and is a standard of veterinary care for dogs at high risk for rattlesnake bites. This is included in the 2006 dog vaccination guidelines from the American Association for Animal Health. It is conditionally licensed by the USDA and recommended in over 4,000 veterinary hospitals nationwide. SIDE EFFECTS: Adverse events are reported in less than one percent of all vaccinated dogs. Most of these side effects are mild and do not require veterinary attention. Tumors at the injection site can be treated with hot, wet compresses, antibiotics, and pain relievers as needed. Systemic reactions (common flu-like symptoms) have been reported in fewer than 1 in 3,000 vaccines and usually resolve on their own within two to three days. EFFECTIVENESS: Reported benefits include delayed onset of symptoms, less severe symptoms, faster recovery time, and lower mortality rates. The vaccine is a help to prevent injury and death from rattlesnake bites. It is designed to stimulate the dog’s natural immune system to create antibodies against rattlesnake venom. Snake bites are still emergency: the vaccine does not provide full immunity. You should still treat your dog at an emergency clinic if he bites you. The nearest Magley Animal Hospital that sells antivenom is the Animal Emergency Clinic at 393 Woods Lake Rd, Greenville, SC 29607. Call to make sure they have it before you travel there (864) 232-1878 LIMITATIONS: The resistance of a vaccinated dog to rattlesnake venom can be overcome by sufficient venom or under special circumstances. These situations include very small dogs, very large snakes, multiple snake bites in a single dog, or certain types of snakes for which the vaccine has little or no protection. PROTECTION OF SNAKE SPECIES: The vaccine will not protect against coral snakes, cottonmouth snakes, or Mojave rattlesnakes. It has limited protection against the eastern diamondback rattlesnake.