The top largest ranking hazelnut-producing countries in the world are Greece, the USA, Turkey, Italy, and Spain. Although France, the Former Soviet Union, Iran, Romania, and Romania all cultivate hazelnuts, their contributions to the world hazelnut trade are minuscule. A top-tier producer and exporter of hazelnuts in Turkey. Additionally, it makes up around 80% of world exports and 70% of global output. It is followed by Italy, which contributes around 15% of exports and 20% of output. The hazelnut crop across the world varies from year to year depending on the weather. Overall, the world's output has increased along with Turkey's. Turkey's in-shell output increased recently from an average of 350 to 400 000 t to 500 000 t. The output of Spain and Italy, two additional important manufacturers, is between 15 and 25 thousand tons and between 100 and 125 thousand tons, respectively. To meet domestic demand, the United States consumes most of its harvest of hazelnuts and imports hazelnut kernels. However, by increasing its output in recent years, it has become an exporter of table hazelnuts (25 000 t). Among the countries that produce hazelnuts, Italy consumes the most of them annually per person (0.520 kg kernel/per person). Data from 1993 place Greece in second place (0.36 kg of kernels per person), after Turkey (0.250 kg kernels per person). The world's highest per capita and yearly hazelnut consumption is in Switzerland (2,096 kg kernel/person). Following Switzerland are Austria, Belgium, Germany, and Luxembourg. Hazelnut exports fluctuate along with their worldwide production. With over 35% of the world's total imports, Germany is the leading hazelnut importer. Despite being the second-largest producer of chocolate in the world, Turkey supplies a sizable share of Italy's needs. France, Austria, Belgium, and Luxembourg have increased their hazelnut imports in recent years while Switzerland keeps its import rate constant. Turkey With three coasts, Turkey serves as a northern hemisphere link between Asia and Europe. One of the most important nut harvests in the world, hazelnuts originated in central Anatolia. The wild species that served as the basis for the modern domesticated varieties are found throughout Anatolia. Both Turkey's eastern and western coasts, where the soil is unsuited for other crops and the landscape is sharply sloping, cultivate hazelnuts along the Black Sea (steeps higher than 20 percent). The crop's ability to stop soil erosion is a bonus in hazelnut-growing areas with a lot of precipitation. Given that over two to three million farmers (5 percent of the nation's population) rely on hazelnut farming for their living, it is simple to see the strategic importance of hazelnut production in the social and economic structure of this region. The majority (72.9%) of the world's hazelnut production, or supply, comes from Turkey. The crop is produced to a degree of around 60% in the eastern Black Sea region, 15% in the central region, and 25% in the western Black Sea region. Turkey's hazelnut crop for 1997 totaled 480 000 tons. For most of the early growing season, the weather was typical. Lower yields were produced as a result of the crop, nevertheless, because of the hot, dry weather in June and July. Hazelnut post-harvest processing may be broken down into two steps. In the early step, the kernel and shell are split apart. The kernel may be blanched, roasted, cut into pieces, chopped, crushed, or made into a paste, among other processes, in the second stage. There are now 160 hazelnut shelling processing facilities in Turkey, with a yearly capacity of 1,271,250 tons. As processing capacity has grown, the export of shelled hazelnuts has grown accordingly, and today, 25–30% of all hazelnuts exported are processed. Around 80% of the hazelnut trade in the world comes from Turkey. Europe is the biggest market for Turkish hazelnuts. The Hazelnut Exporters Union is still considering whether it would be feasible to expand exports to new markets in the Far East, North America, particularly the United States, and the former Soviet Union countries. Italy 110 000 t of hazelnuts are produced in Italy. The hazelnut-growing region in Italy is projected to remain stable shortly, while production will mostly be influenced by weather and the trees' alternate bearing. Four regions dominate the hazelnut industry, with Sicily, Piedmont, Latium, and Campania providing the remaining 50% or so. Of the approximately 10,000 t of hazelnut output in all of Italy, 10% is produced in Piemonte. Campania (50%), Latium (28%), and Sicily are other production areas (12 percent). Three provinces in Piemonte grow hazelnuts: Cuneo in the southwest, which produces around 80% of the nation's supply; Asti in the center-south; and Alexandria in the southeast (5 percent). This high terrain, which has an elevation of between 250 and 700 meters, is where the hazelnut-growing area of Langhe, Roero, and Monferrato is located. Native cultivars such as "Tonda di Giffoni" in Latium, "Mortarella," "San Giovanni," "Camponica," "Riccia di Talanico," "Tonda Bianca," and "Tonda Rossa," "Tonda Gentile delle Langhe," and "Santa Maria de Jesu" in Sicily are the most prominent cultivars. Based on the projected output rebound, it was predicted that Italy's hazelnut exports will triple to 50,000 metric tons in 1996–1997. The United States Between 25 and 30, 000 t of in-shell hazelnuts are produced in Oregon by the US, and 4 000 t are imported. 95% on average of Turkey's hazelnut imports go to the industrial sector. In 1997, the United States produced 42,000 metric tons of hazelnuts. A powerful windstorm in December that badly damaged countless branches, frigid temperatures in February, and unfavorable floods all affected the crop. In addition, the cold and wet weather made pollination difficult. Italy's expected higher export levels put pressure on the United States hazelnut export market. Italian hazelnuts are of a higher caliber than American ones, making it simple for them to enter traditional American markets in the European Union. Hazelnuts that have already been shelled are primarily what Turkey has given to the US. Oregon produces the majority of the hazelnuts consumed in the United States, hence this region has been particularly successful in setting hazelnut prices. Both domestically grown and imported hazelnuts are used in the baking, cereal, and confectionery industries in the US. Hazelnuts are typically ground into a paste for use in these industries. Spain In terms of hazelnut production, Spain is fourth in the globe, after only Turkey, Italy, and the United States. Inshell production reached 18,000 t in 1997. The main producing region of Spain is Catalonia, located in the northeast. Within Catalonia, the province of Tarragona has the largest growing area (27 000 hectares), making up 90% of all the hazelnut-growing land in Spain. The orchards of Tarragona may be classified into two groups based on their topography. First, there are the orchards of the province's inland mountain ranges (Priorat), which are situated on mountain slopes and have a low level of automation, dry farming (approximately 400 mm of annual rainfall), a low level of production (500-800 kg/ha), and a downward tendency. Second, the flat area orchards of the Camp de Tarragona region are highly mechanized, have a high yield (2,000 to 2,500 kg/ha), and use cutting-edge agricultural methods. They are situated close to the Mediterranean shore. The majority of the hazelnuts used for commerce worldwide are grown in the second area. Native cultivars such as "Negret" (70 percent), "Gironell," "Pauetet," "Culplà," "Morell," "Grifoll," "Trenet," and "Ribet" are the most prominent varieties. However, the "Pauetet" cultivar has recently become more common in irrigated orchards. Italian cultivars including "Tonda di Giffoni," "Tonda Romana," and "San Giovanni" are well known for their high yields and value in the marketplace. Hazelnuts are often consumed in their shelled form. Between 60 and 70 percent of domestic supply is used by the chocolate and confectionery industries. Hazelnuts are regularly offered in snack packs and are also used as snacks. Hazelnuts compete all year long in Spain alongside almonds, peanuts, and other snack items. The demand for hazelnuts in the candy business rises during years with high almond prices. Hazelnut exports from Spain are declining while imports are rising. France Southwest Ninety percent of the hazelnut orchards in the world is located in France. 50–100 hectares are planted every year with aid from the French Ministry of Agriculture. Except for the Garonne valley, 2,500 hectares have been planted with hazelnuts since 1972, mostly in Aquitaine and the Midi-Pyrenees. 'Ennis' (26%), 'Fertile de Coutard' (22%), 'Segorbe' (16%), 'Corabel' (12%), and 'Pauetet' (12%) make up the current make-up of the French orchard. Eight percent. Each year, France imports 16,000 t of kernels and around 1,500 t of in-shell nuts. Most of these hazelnuts come into the country from Spain, Italy, and Turkey through the port of Marseille. The French hazel orchards are still young, therefore crop yield is increasing quickly (1 600 t in 1987, 2 200 t in 1989, inshell), and it will reach 3,500 t in 1996. The price of imported French hazelnuts is one-tenth of this. Inshell nuts larger than 20 millimeters for human consumption are being exported, primarily to Germany (1 500 t on average during the last three years).